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Getting the Most Out of SpinOut
Spin Out is designed to improve root development of plants grown in containers. Without SpinOut, containerized plants develop circled and matted roots, a condition known as "root bound". Once transplanted, this can lead to poor root regrowth into the surrounding soil unless the root bound condition is corrected by mechanical root pruning prior to transplanting. Unfortunately, root-pruning causes transplant shock, where up to 80% of the root system can be damaged resulting in slower growth and sometimes death. SpinOut promotes the development of a fibrous root system, which does not require mechanical root pruning at transplanting. Other benefits such as improved growth in height, branches, caliper and flower number has been described in numerous publications from noted horticultural researchers. To fully achieve these benefits, the product must be properly applied and used at key stages of nursery production.

Building a better root system to support better growth.
Published information on SpinOut has generally focused on using the product at one stage of nursery production. As a stand-alone product, SpinOut will not always improve plant growth unless used in at least one shifting or upcanning step. When plants grown in SpinOut-treated containers are transplanted to larger containers, or lined out in the field, the improved root structure supports quicker root regeneration, which ultimately supports better growth. This improved root regeneration results from building a more fibrous root system with more intact root tips that have a higher regeneration potential. SpinOut prevents the "cage root" condition where roots are only present on the outside of the root ball. Instead, the roots explore and utilize all the available potting media. An improvement in root distribution can lead to an improvement in the nutrient status and health of the plant which will support quicker growth when upcanned or transplanted.

Start Early
To maximize the benefits of SpinOut, start early in plant production. SpinOut can be used at any stage of plant development from seedlings and cuttings to large trees in 100-gallon pots. Eliminating spiral roots in the propagation phase will greatly reduce the development of girdling roots as the plant ages. Seedlings and cuttings started in treated containers or cell packs, develop fine, fibrous roots with many root tips. This prepares a new plant for better growth compared to plants with sparse, unbranched roots. Cuttings rooted in SpinOut treated pots will also initiate more roots directly from the callus on cuttings. A plant with a more evenly developed root system will be able to support better growth in the nursery and transplant well to the landscape.

Time in the container
It is true that a plant can be left in a SpinOut-treated container for a longer period of time compared to non-treated containers. However, SpinOut is NOT a substitute for upcanning. Since plants in SpinOut-treated containers are able to exploit all the soil in a container, it is possible to delay shifting for a few months in most climates. In climates with long growing seasons, this time may be shorter, especially for vigorous species. Plants kept in SpinOut-treated containers past full root development will not grow as quickly when shifted as plants shifted at the proper time. Plants shifted before they become root bound will have the best root regeneration and growth potential. Improved root regeneration combined with multiple growth "flushes" will delay the development of dormant buds until late in the growing season. This growth effect has been demonstrated using red oak seedlings grown under an accelerated program where plants are shifted at an optimum stage1.

Root Management using SpinOut
SpinOut can be used to control excess or undesirable root growth associated with container production. Root escapes that occur in various nursery production areas such as pot in pot, propagation, shadehouses, container yards, and capillary sand beds can lead to plant injury when harvested. Groundcover fabric can be coated at the nursery with SpinOut or purchased pretreated to manage root growth.

For pot in pot root management, SpinOut-treated fabric squares, available precut to fit various
container sizes, will control roots that grow from the drain holes and eventually grow out of the socket pot. Control of these roots makes it possible to hand harvest without disturbing the socket pot. Treating the growing container with SpinOut will delay the time it takes for roots to escape, thereby decreasing the time for roots to grow out of the socket pot. Treated fabric may be unnecessary if the growing container is treated.
SpinOut-treated groundcloth under propagation areas will control excess roots that escape out
of the pot thereby encouraging better root development in the pots. In areas with high humidity where roots are not completely air pruned, SpinOut-treated ground cloth will make harvesting easier.
Tex-R Geodiscs™ (coated with SpinOut) placed on the top of pots will prevent weed growth by
pruning weed roots as they germinate. This will provide effective weed control for up to 3 years.Geodiscs can be used on container grown fruit crops.
Tex-R Agroliner™ Bags can be used for in-field tree production. A very fibrous root system
develops within the bags so that more roots are recovered at digging. The SpinOut treatment allows for easy removal of the bag. All pretreated fabric products are available from Texel, Inc.

Where not to use SpinOut.
SpinOut should not be used for plants produced in float culture and plug trays greater than 200 cells. SpinOut has been successfully used on plug trays with fewer cells, however, under some conditions, plants may be stunted. Do not apply SpinOut directly on plants or soil.

1. Struve, D. and T. Rhodus. 1990. Turning copper into gold. Amer. Nurseryman. 172(4):114-125.
Tex-R Geodiscs and Tex-R Agroliner are registered trademarks of Texel, Inc.
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